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A Hall effect sensor is a transducer that varies its output voltage in response to a magnetic field. Hall effect sensors are used for proximity sensingpositioningspeed detectionand current sensing applications. In a Hall effect sensor, a thin strip of metal has a current applied along it.
In the presence of a magnetic field, the electrons in the metal strip are deflected toward one edge, producing a voltage gradient across the short side of the strip perpendicular to the feed current. Hall effect sensors have an advantage over inductive sensors in that, while inductive sensors respond to a changing magnetic field which induces current in a coil of wire and produces voltage at its output, Hall effect sensors can detect static non-changing magnetic fields.
In its simplest form, the sensor operates as an analog transducer, directly returning a voltage.
Hallův senzor – detektor magnetického pole
With a known magnetic field, its distance from the Hall plate can be determined. Soonda groups of halloca, the relative position of the magnet can be deduced. Frequently, a Hall sensor is combined with threshold detection so that it acts as and is called a switch. Commonly seen in industrial applications such as the pictured pneumatic cylinderthey are also used in consumer equipment; for example some computer printers use them to detect missing paper and open covers.
Hall effect sensor – Wikipedia
They can also be used in computer keyboardsan application that requires ultra-high reliability. Hall sensors are commonly used to time the speed of wheels and shafts, such as for internal combustion engine ignition timingtachometers and anti-lock braking systems. They are used in brushless DC electric motors to detect the position of the permanent magnet.
In the pictured wheel with two equally spaced magnets, the voltage from the sensor will peak twice for each revolution. This arrangement is commonly used to regulate the speed of disk drives. A Hall probe contains an indium compound semiconductor crystal such as indium antimonidemounted on an aluminum backing plate, and encapsulated in the probe head.
The plane of the crystal is perpendicular to the probe handle. Connecting leads from the crystal are brought down through the handle to the circuit box.
When the Hall probe is held so that the magnetic field lines are passing at right angles through the sensor of the probe, the meter gives a reading of the value of magnetic flux density B. A current is passed through the crystal which, when placed in a magnetic field has a ” Hall effect ” voltage developed across it. The Hall effect is seen when a conductor is passed through a uniform magnetic field.
The natural electron drift of the charge carriers causes the magnetic field to apply a Lorentz force the force exerted on a charged particle in an electromagnetic field to these charge carriers. The result is what is seen as a charge separation, with a buildup of either positive or negative charges on the bottom or on the top of the plate.
The probe handle, being made of a non- ferrous material, has no disturbing effect on the field. A Hall probe should be calibrated against a known value of magnetic field strength. For a solenoid the Hall probe is placed in the center.
When a beam of charged particles passes through a magnetic field, forces act on the particles and the beam is deflected from a straight path. The flow of electrons through a conductor form a beam of charged carriers.
When a conductor is placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the electrons, they will be deflected from a straight path. As a consequence, one plane of the conductor will become negatively charged and the opposite side will become positively charged. The voltage between these planes is called the Hall voltage. When the force on the charged particles from the electric field balances the force produced by magnetic field, the separation of them will stop.
If the current is not changing, then the Hall voltage is a measure of the magnetic flux density. Basically, there are two kinds of Hall effect sensors. One is linear which means the output of voltage linearly depends on magnetic flux density; the other is called threshold which means there will be a aonda decrease of output voltage at each magnetic flux density.
The key factor determining sensitivity of Hall effect sensors is high electron mobility. As a result, the following materials are especially suitable for Hall effect sensors:. Hall effect sensors hallovw linear transducers. As a result, such sensors require a linear circuit for processing of the sensor’s output signal. Such a linear circuit:. In some cases the linear circuit may cancel the offset voltage of Hall effect sensors.
Moreover, AC modulation of the driving current may also reduce the influence of this offset voltage. Hall effect sensors with linear transducers are commonly integrated with digital electronics. In some solutions of IC Hall effect sensors a DSP is used, which provides for more choices among processing techniques.
It may also provide and monitor the current to the Hall effect sensor itself. There are precision IC products available to handle these features. In the case of linear sensor for the magnetic field strength measurementsa Hall effect sensor:. Hall effect sensors provide much lower measuring accuracy than fluxgate magnetometers or magnetoresistance -based sensors. Hallpva, Hall effect sensors drift significantly, requiring compensation.
The Hall effect sensors are also used in the brushless DC motor to sense the position of the rotor and to switch the transistors in the right sequence. Smartphones use hall sensors to determine if the Flip Cover accessory is closed. Hall effect sensors may be utilized for contactless measurements of DC current in current transformers.
In such a case the Hall effect sensor is mounted in the gap in magnetic core around the current conductor.
The Hall sensor is used in some automotive fuel level indicators. The main principle of operation of such indicator is position sensing of a floating element. Developed by Everett A. Vorthmann and Joeseph T. Maupin for Micro Switch a division of Honeywell inthe switch was known to still be in production until as late as The Honeywell Hall effect switch is most famously used in the Space-cadet keyboard[ citation needed ] sonra keyboard used on LISP machines.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Hall effect devices 2, illustrated ed. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 2 September Geophone Hydrophone Microphone Seismometer. Air—fuel ratio meter Blind spot monitor Crankshaft position sensor Curb feeler Defect detector Engine coolant temperature sensor Hall effect sensor MAP sensor Mass flow sensor Omniview technology Oxygen sensor Parking sensors Radar gun Speed sensor Speedometer Throttle position sensor Tire-pressure monitoring system Torque sensor Transmission fluid temperature sensor Turbine speed sensor Variable reluctance sensor Vehicle speed sensor Water sensor Wheel speed sensor.
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