Abstract. OBJECTIVES Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary muscle contractions producing repetitive, patterned mouth. Oromandibular dystonia is a form of focal dystonia affecting the mouth, jaw and tongue, and in this disease it is hard to speak. It is associated with bruxism. Oromandibular dystonia causes spasms of the jaw, lips, and tongue muscles. This dystonia can cause problems with speech and swallowing.

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Treatment oromandibulae medication, BoNT injection, and MAB therapy were not effective, and no significant enlargement of the bilateral coronoid process was observed. Loss of teeth and occlusal alteration. Head and neck dystonia manifest clinically by the presence of involuntary sustained, forceful muscle contractions, and characteristic rhythmic movements and abnormal posture. Thus, the dentists should be aware of the symptoms and signs and refer the suspicious cases.

Moreover, this treatment had no adversarial reaction. Botulinum toxin acts on neuromuscular junction through the steps of 1 attachment, 2 endocytosis, 3 activation of short chain, and 4 disruption of SNARE proteins as depicted in Figure 8. Extrapyramidal and movement disorders Disease oromandbular. The mechanism and the cause of OMD are not well known.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Oromandibular dystonia OMD is a rare focal neurological disorder that affects mouth, face, and jaws. Always seek the advice of your dentist or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment.

Etiology, Diagnosis and Management of Oromandibular Dystonia: an Update for Stomatologists

Its positive effects might be due to the proprioceptive stimulation. OMD patients may refer to dentists with involuntary jaw movements and intraoral presentations. Muscle afferent block MAB Yoshida et al. Table 1 Clinical features and investigations distoniaa the diagnostic work-up of the case.


Craniocervical manifestations of dystonia affect the person’s quality of life by interfering with the ability to speak and swallow and in social interaction. The patient felt being oromandibupar, sad, frustrated, depressed, and even oromandibulag because the painful symptoms remained undiagnosed for a long time. Dysarthria or breathing difficulties are also reported rarely.

Restoring the Edentulous Patient with Oromandibular Dystonia: Originally released December 1, ; last updated March 10, ; expires March 10, Based on the available data, it seems that there is no specific surgical therapy for OMD.

For jaw closing dystonia, BTX-A is injected into the masseter muscle at the angle of the mandible and 20 units of BoNT are injected into each site. J Am Dent Assoc. Learn more about this rare condition and how it’s treated. At month recall, patient reports complete absence of dystonic movements with improved quality of life assessment with a maintenance dose of carbamazepine of half tablet at night time only.

Primary dystonia can be either sporadic or inherited, and is not associated with any cognitive, pyramidal, cerebellar, or sensory abnormalities. Dental implants-induced task-specific oromandibular dystonia. Physiotherapy Physiotherapy is thought to promote brain re-wiring over time, so as to reduce the dystonic movements.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Speech difficulties, eating problems, swallowing issues and dental problems are possible, as well as depression and other psychological impacts. Effects of exposing dental implant to the maxillary sinus cavity. The randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, case series, and single case reports containing a report on a clinical outcome were included.

They suggested that the dental procedure might have caused a triggering effect. Complete treatment of OMD.

Oromandibular dystonia

The symptoms of OMD can get worse by emotional factors, which is among the reasons for the delayed diagnosis. Thorburn and Lee[ 15 ] discussed two OMD cases which occurred following extractions and full dentures. Disronia role of a dentist in managing patients with dystonia. Long-term efficacy, safety, and side effect profile of botulinum toxin in dystonia: Find articles by Saeed Raoofi. However a marked bulge is still apparent on her right half of forehead region which could be due to the muscular hyperactivity with probable hypertrophy in the involved muscle, a feature which has not been reported in the previous reported literature.



What Is Oromandibular Dystonia?

The involvement of the neck muscles on the right side resulting in the feeling of constriction suggests cervical component of dystonia, since there is no gold standard diagnostic test or biomarker for testing the validity of the diagnosis.

Mechanism of Action of Botulinum Toxin Many cases of orofacial dystonia’s after dental procedures have been reported; Sankhla et al.

Medications like trihexyphenidyl, diazepam and clozapine can also help control the disorder, but only to a modest level. Adverse effects reported are dry mouth, dysphagia, lethargy, generalized weakness, and dysphonia. Republic of Singapore English. An essay on the neurodynamics of dystonia. On intraoral examination the episodes began with fine involuntary fasciculations in the right masseter and temporalis which progressed to severe dystonic contractions of the face and neck within few seconds causing grimacing of the face with difficulty in breathing following which the patient assumed a body posture holding the right side of face and neck gasping for breath, trying to open her mouth in an attempt to breath.

Role of Botulinum Toxin in Oromandibular Dystonia. BoNT may be immunogenic, and some patients may develop secondary non- responsiveness following multiple injections. Patients usually report triggers like stress, talking, chewing something and praying.

Although some cases of OMD have been reported after dental procedures, the causal relationship between vistonia procedures and dystonia is still unclear. Once she forcefully opened her mouth the spasms would reduce within a span of seconds and eventually stopped.